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PEG 144-5

Fillthe spaces in the following sentences by inserting must or the present, future, or past form of have to.

1 She . .. leave home at eight everymorning at present.

2 Notice in a picture gallery: Cameras, sticksand umbrellas . . . beleft at the desk.

3 He sees very badly; he . .. wear glasses all the time.

4 1... do all the typing at my office.

5 You . . .read this book. It's really excellent.

6 The children . . . playin the streets till their mothers get home from work.

7 She felt ill and . . . leave early.

8 Mr Pitt . .. cook his own meals. Hiswife is away.

9 I hadn't enough money and I . .. pay by cheque.

10 I never remember his address; I always . .. look it up.

11 Employer: You . .. come to work in time.

12 If you go to a dentist with a private practiceyou . . . payhim quite a  lot of money.

13 Father to small son: You . .. do what Mummy says.

14 My neighbour's child . .. practise the piano forthree hours a day.

15 Doctor: I can't come now.
Caller: You . . .come; he's terribly ill.

16 English children . . . stay at school till the ageof 16.

17 In my district there is no gas laid on. People . .. use electricity foreverything.

18 Notice above petrol pump: All engines . .. be switched off.

19 Mother to daughter: You . .. come in earlier at night.

20 The shops here don't deliver. We . .. carry everything homeourselves.

21 The buses were all full; I . .. get a taxi.

22 Notice beside escalators: Dogs and push chairs . .. be carried.

23 'Au pair' girls usually . .. do quite a lot ofhousework.

24 Tell her that she . .. be here by six. I insist onit.

25 When a tyre is punctured the driver . .. change the wheel.

26 Park notice: All dogs . .. be kept on leads.

27 She . . .learn how to drive when her local railway station is closed.

28 Railway notice: Passengers . .. cross the line by thefootbridge.

29 Igot lost and . . . aska policeman the way.

30 Farmers . . . getup early.

31 If you buy that television set you . .. buy a licence for it.

32 When I changed my job I . .. move to another flat.       

33 Waiters . . . paytax on the tips that they receive.             

34 Father to son: I can't support you any longer;you . . .earn your own living from now on.

35 Railway notice: Passengers . .. be in possession of aticket.

36 Whenever the dog wants to go out1... get up and open the door.



PEG 146

Use must not orneed not to fill the spaces in the following sentences.

1 You . .. ring the bell; I have akey.

2Notice in cinema: Exit doors . . . belocked during performances.

3 You . .. drink this: it is poison.

4 We . .. drive fast; we have plentyof time.

5 You . .. drive fast; there is aspeed limit here.

6Candidates . . .bring books into the examination room.

7 You . .. write to him for he will behere tomorrow.

8 We . .. make any noise or we'llwake the baby.

9 You . .. bring an umbrella. It isn'tgoing to rain.

10 You . . . doall the exercise. Ten sentences will be enough.

11 We . .. reheat the pie. We can eatit cold.

12 Mother to child: You . .. tell lies.

13 You . . .turn on the light; I can see quite well.

14 You . . .strike a match; the room is full of gas.

15 You . . .talk to other candidates during the exam.

16 We . . .make any more sandwiches; we have plenty now.

17 You . . . putsalt in any of his dishes. Salt is very bad for him.

18 You . . .take anything out of a shop without paying for it.

19 You . . .carry that parcel home yourself; the shop will send it.

20 You . . .clean the windows. The window-cleaner is coming tomorrow.

21 Mother to child: You . .. play with matches.

22 Church notice: Visitors . .. walk about the churchduring a service.

23 1... go to the shops today.There is plenty of food in the house.

24 You . . .smoke in a non-smoking compartment.

25 Police notice: Cars . .. be parked here.

26 We . . .open the lion's cage. It is contrary to Zoo regulations.

27 You . . .make your bed. The maid will do it.

28 I want this letter typed but you . .. do it today. Tomorrow willdo.

29 I'll lend youthe money and you . . . payme back till next month.

30 We . . .climb any higher; we can see very well from here.

31 You . . .look under the bed. There isn't anybody there.

32 You . . . aska woman her age. It's not polite.

33 You've given me too much. ~
You . . . eatit all.

34 We . . .forget to shut the lift gates.

35 Mother to child: You . .. interrupt when I amspeaking.

36 If you want the time, pick up the receiver anddial 8081; you . . . sayanything.



PEG 148-50

Replacethe words in bold type by need not/need I? etc., or a negative orinterrogative have to form.
         I've been invited to a wedding;but I can't go. Will it be necessaryfor me to send a  

         Shall I have to send a present?

1 It isn't necessary for him to go on working. He hasalready reached retiring age.

  {He . . .)

2 Was it necessary for you to wait a long time for yourbus?

3 Itisn't necessary for me to water my tomato plants every day.

4 It will be necessary for them to getup early when they go out to work every day.

5 We had to stop at the frontier but we were not required to open our cases.

6 It wasn't necessary to walk. He took us in hiscar. (We . . .)

7 My employer said, 1shan't require you tomorrow.' (You . . . come.)

8 Itis never necessary for me to work on Saturdays.

9 When I am eighteen I'll be of age. Then it won't be necessary to live at homeif  I don't want to.

10 New teacher to his class: It isn't necessary for you to call me 'Sir'; call me 'Bill'.

11 Will it be necessary for us toreport this accident to the police?

12 When you buy something on the installmentsystem you are not required to pay the whole price at once.

13 Did you know enough English to ask for yourticket?
 Itwasn't necessary to say anything. I bought my ticket at a machine.

14 Itisn't necessary to buy a licence for a bicycle in England. (We . . .)

15 Is it essential for you tofinish tonight?

16 Isit necessary for people to go everywhere by boat in Venice?

17Will it be necessary for me to sleep under a mosquito net?

18 Most peoplethink that civil servants are notrequired to work very hard.                                                         

19 It wasn't necessary to swim. Wewere able to wade across.

20 Itisn't necessary for you to drive me to the station. I can get a taxi.

21 Our plane was delayed so we had lunch at theairport. But it wasn't necessary topay for the lunch. The airline gave it to us.

22 Isit obligatory for us to vote?

23 When you were a child were you required to practise the piano?

24 I saw the accident but fortunately it wasn't necessary for me to give evidence as there were plenty of otherwitnesses.

25 Small boy to friend: It won't be necessary for you to work hard whenyou come to my school. The teachers aren't very strict.

26 They had plenty of time. It wasn't necessary for them to hurry.

27 Isit necessary for you to take your dog with you everywhere?   

28 What timewas it necessary for you to leave home?

29 I brought my passport but I wasn't required to show it to anyone.

30 I missed one day of the exam. Will it be necessary for me to takethe whole exam again?

31 Is it really necessary for you to practise theviolin at 3 a.m.?

32 Everything was done for me. It wasn'tnecessary for me to do anything.

33 Are French children obliged to go to school on Saturdays?

34 I was late for the opera. ~

     Wasit necessary for you to wait till the end of the first act beforefinding your seat?

35 He repaired my old watch so it wasn'tnecessary for me to buy a new one after all.

36Were you required to make a speech?

    MUST, CAN'T AND NEEDN'T with the perfect infinitive
PEG 152, 156, 159

must + perfect infinitive is usedfor affirmative deductions.
can't/couldn't +infinitive is used for negative deductions.
needn't + perfect infinitive is usedfor a past action which was unnecessary but was performed.

Fillthe spaces in the following sentences by using one of these forms + the perfect infinitive ofthe verbs in brackets.

1 Did you hear me comein last night? ~
No, I . . .(be) asleep.

2 I wonder who broke the wineglass; it . .. (be) the cat for she wasout all day.

3 You . . .(help) him. ( You helped him but hedidn 't needhelp.)

4 I had my umbrella when I came out but Ihaven't got it now. ~

   You . .. (leave) it on the bus.

5 He . . .(escape) by this window because it is barred.

6 I . . .  (give) Ј10. Ј5would have been enough.

7 I saw a rattlesnake near the river yesterday. ~
You . . .(see) a rattlesnake. There aren't any rattlesnakes in this country.

8 He is back already. ~
He . . .(start) very early.

9 He returned home with a tiger cub. ~
His wife (be) very pleased about that.

10 I bought two bottles of milk. ~
You . . .(buy) milk; we have heaps in the house.

11 I phoned you at nine thismorning but got no answer. ~
 I'm sorry. I . .. (be) in the garden.

12 I left my bicycle here and now it's gone. ~
Someone . . .(borrow) it.

13 When she woke up her watch had vanished. ~
 Someone . .. (steal) it while she slept.

14 I've opened another bottle. ~
You . . .(do) that. We've only just started this one.

15 The machine said, 'Youweigh 65 kilos,' and Isaid, Thank you.' ~
You . . .(say) anything.

16 I told him to turn left and he immediatelyturned right! ~
He . . .(understand) you.

17 Perhaps he swam across. ~
No, he . . .(do) that; he can't swim.

18 Do you remember reading about it in thenewspapers? ~
No, I . . .(be) abroad at the time.

19 He . . .(walk) from here to Londonin two hours. It isn't possible.

20 He was very sick last night. ~
The meat we had for supper . . .(be) good.

21 There was a dock strike and the liner couldn'tleave port. ~
The passengers . . .(be) furious.

22 We went to a restaurant and had a very gooddinner for Ј3. ~

    You . . .(have) a very good dinner if you only paid Ј3.

23 I have just watered the roses. ~
You . . .(water) them. Look, it's raining now!

24 That carpet was made entirely by hand. ~
It . . .(take) a long time.

25 The door was open. ~

     It . . .(be) open. I had locked it myself and the key was in my pocket.

26 He said that he watered the plants every day. ~
He . . .(water) them. If he had they wouldn't have died.

27 He came out of the water with little red spotsall over his back. ~

    He . . .(be) stung by a jelly-fish.

28 We've sent for a doctor. ~
You . . .(send) for him. I am perfectly well.

29 I've made two copies. ~
You . . .(make) two. One would have been enough.

30 There was a terrible crash at 3 a.m. ~
That . . .(be) Tom coming in from his party.

31 I had to get down the mountain in a thick fog. ~
That . . .(be) very difficult.

32 I saw Ann in the library yesterday. ~
You . . .(see) her; she is still abroad.

33 How did he get out of the house? He . .. (come) down the stairs for
they were blazing.

34 You . . .(lend) him your map. He has one of his own.

35 I spoke in English, very slowly. ~
You . . .(speak) slowly. He speaks English very fluently.

36 He was found unconscious at the foot of thecliff. He . . . (fall) 200 metres.